Syllabus D. Leading And Managing Individuals And Teams D2. Recruitment and Selection of Employees

D2b. Recruitment and Selection Process & Methods 2 / 4

Syllabus D2b)

Describe the recruitment and selection process and explain the stages in this process.


Agree on the vacancy to be filled

A vacancy presents an opportunity to either reassess the requirements of the job or to consider restructuring. 

A number of questions should always be asked prior to recruiting to the vacancy:

  • Why replace at all? Alternatives to recruitment include retraining, promotion and job rotation

  • What is the purpose of the post?

  • Has the function changed?

  • Can workloads be adjusted?

  • Can the job be carried out on a part time rather than a full time basis?

  • Alternatives to full-time employment include home working (or teleworking), job sharing, flexitime or fixed term contracts.

Job Analysis

The process of job analysis starts with realising that there is a need or requirement of a job.  

A job specification is a detailed study and description of the tasks that make up the job and the kind of person required to do the job.  

A job description will set out how a particular employee will fit into the organisation. 

It will therefore need to set out:

  • the title of the job

  • to whom the employee is responsible

  • for whom the employee is responsible

  • a simple description of the role and duties of the employee within the organisation.

Person Specification

A person specification defines the attributes of the ideal candidate – it is a blueprint of the qualities required of the jobholder. 

There are two main theories relating to the content of a person specification – those put forward by:

  1. Alec Rodgers

  2. John Munro Fraser

alec roger – 7 point plan fraser – 5 point plan
s special aptitudes

c circumstances

i interests

p physical makeup

d disposition

a attainments

g general intelligence

f flexibility and adjustment

i impact on other people

r required qualifications

m motivation

i innate abilities

Recruit or promote?

There are many alternatives to external recruitment:

  • promotion of existing staff (upwards or laterally)

  • secondment (temporary transfers to another department, office, plant or country) of existing staff, which may or may not become permanent

  • closing the job down, by sharing out duties and responsibilities among existing staff

  • rotating jobs among staff, so that the vacant job is covered by different staff, on a systematic basis over several months.

The decisions on whether to recruit someone from outside the organisation or to promote or transfer someone from within the existing workforce will depend mainly on the availability of the skills and attributes required to fill the vacancy.

Where there are skill shortages in the country, it may be necessary to develop them within the organisation.

Other reasons include:

Other reasons include:
Motivating present employees  Obtain specialist skills
Part of career development plan Inject 'new blood' into company
'Know' the staff already but
Candidate understands work May create dissatisfaction in existing employees
Save time and money May cost more (higher wage)
No induction necessary

Attract a field of candidates

It is important to know where suitable applicants are likely to be found, how to make contact with them and to secure their application. 

Potential sources:

  • employment service job centers and agencies

  • private employment agencies

  • career advisory offices

  • universities, colleges and schools

  • professional and executive appointments registers

  • executive search or headhunting

  • advertising

Recruitment consultants

Any organisation which is considering the use of external recruitment consultants would make its decision upon the following:

  1. the availability, level and appropriateness of expertise available within the organisation and its likely effectiveness

  2. the cost of using consultants against the cost involved in using the organisation’s own staff, recognising the level of the vacancy or vacancies against the consultant’s fee

  3. the particular expertise of the consultants and the appropriate experience with any particular specialised aspect of the recruitment process

  4. the level of expertise required of potential employees and therefore the appropriate knowledge required of the consultants.

Prepare recruitment advertisements

The content of the advertisement should be:

  • concise, but comprehensive enough to be an accurate description of the job, its rewards and requirements

  • attractive to the maximum number of the right people

  • positive and honest about the organisation. Disappointed expectations will be a prime source of dissatisfaction when an applicant actually comes into contact with the organisation

Choosing advertising media

The selection of the right medium depends on several factors:

  1.  Type of organisation

  2.  Type of job

  3.  Geographic coverage of the medium

  4.  Readership and circulation

  5.  Cost of medium

  6.  Frequency and duration

This could be any of the following:
 National Press
 Local Press
 Internet
 Radio & TV
 Specialist Journals

Sort candidates

Methods of selection generally start with the short listing of applicants. 

The potential candidates then face a variety of other methods used in the selection process. 

These include:

  1. Selection Methods:

     Application Forms
     Assessment Centers
     References
     Tests
     Interviews

  2. Selection interviews

    Interviews are by far the most widely used selection technique. 

    The main interview options are:

    1. Face to face
    2. Group Interviews
    3. Succession Interviewing
    4. Problem Solving
    5. Panel Interview
    6. Stress

Advantages of the interview technique Disadvantages of the interview technique
Places candidate at ease Too brief to 'get to know' candidates
Highly interactive, allowing flexible question and answers Interview is an artificial situation
Opportunities to use nonverbal Communication Halo effect from initial impression
Opportunities to evaluate rapport between the candidate and the potential colleagues/bosses. Qualitative factors such as motivation, honesty or integrity are difficult to assess prejudice - stereotyping groups of people
Opportunities to assess Appearance, interpersonal and communication skills Lack of interviewer preparation, skill, training and practice 
Subjectivity and bias.

Selection testing

There are two basic types of test:

  1. Proficiency and attainment tests are used to measure an individual's demonstrated competence in particular job related tasks.

  2. Psychometric testing measures such psychological factors as aptitude, intelligence and personality.

The elements of the selection process are:

  •  Intelligence test – measuring general intellectual ability

  •  Proficiency test – measuring the ability to do the work involved in the job

  •  Psychometric test – assess the thinking processes of the person

  • Aptitude test – testing specific abilities

  •  Medical examination – tests regarding health issues

  •  Psychological and personality test – basic attitude profiles can be accessed through questionnaires

Assessment centre

An assessment centre can consist of many processes:

  •  Group discussions

  •  Presentations

  •  Questionnaires

  •  Simulations – an imitation

  •  Games

  •  Speeches

  •  Peer ratings

  •  Self-appraisal

  •  Role-play

  •  Written tests


The purpose of references is to confirm facts about the employee and increase the degree of confidence felt about information given during interviews and from application forms and CVs. 

References should contain two types of information:

  1. Straightforward factual information. 

    This confirms the nature of the applicant’s previous job(s), period of employment, pay, and circumstances of leaving.

  2. Opinions about the applicant’s personality and other attributes.